Smoking, in all forms, such as cigarettes, waterpipe, and e-cigarettes, is harmful and proven to cause lung injury. In this pandemic era, it is essential to examine potential evidence linking smoking and the risk of infection with the SARS-CoV-2 as well as the prognosis and severity of COVID-19 disease. The effect of smoking and nicotine on airway inflammation has been established in multiple studies. However, the impact of nicotine on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor remains controversial and calls for more studies.
Smoking, nicotine, COVID-19
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