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Foreword Mário Morais-Almeida is a Specialist in Allergy and Clinical Immunology and on Health Units Management, is the Head of the Allergy Center of CUF-Descobertas Hospital and CUF-Infante Santo Hospital in Lisbon and Researcher of CINTESIS – Center for Health Technology and Services Research, Porto Medical School, Portugal. His primary research interests include asthma, rhinitis, epidemiology and environmental risk factors for asthma and other allergic diseases, from pre-school age to the elderly. He serves on various medical committees and is a member of several professional societies, international and national, including the Portuguese Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, where he served as President from 2005 until 2013. Dr. Morais-Almeida is the Vice-president of the Portuguese Association of Asthmatic and Allergic Patients, and has acted as Vice-president of the Latin American Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Society - SLAAI (2013-2015), President of the South European Allergy Societies - SEAS (2011), Vice-president of the Lung Portuguese Foundation (2010-2012), President of the Luso-Brazilian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - SLBAIC (2009-2010) and President of the Allergy and Clinical Immunology Board of the Portuguese Medical Association (2003-2006). He acts as a consultant of several departments of the Portuguese Ministry of Health for the development of the national strategy namely against asthma and anaphylaxis. He published more than 150 articles in peer-reviewed national and international medical journals largely related to asthma, rhinitis and epidemiology. W elcome to the latest edition of European Respiratory & Pulmonary Diseases, which features a diverse range of articles covering a number of therapeutic areas. This edition begins with a discussion of a relatively new and controversial positive airway pressure (PAP) unit. Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) is a non-invasive ventilatory PAP therapy for the treatment of adults with both obstructive and central sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). A recent clinical trial found that ASV significantly reduced SDB events in patients with systolic heart failure and predominant central sleep apnoea, but did not improve outcomes, and was associated with increased mortality, leaving experts unsure whether or not to reject its use. D’Ortho et al put these data into perspective and suggest that ASV may be useful in several other indications and patient groups. In two editorials, respiratory tract disorders are discussed. Midulla and Nessa present the need for a unique clinical definition of bronchiolitis, the most common lower respiratory tract disorder in infants. In addition, de Benedictis and Attanasi outline future directions in asthma research, highlighting the need for new biologic markers and new approaches towards personalised medicine. The management of rare pulmonary neoplasms presents challenges in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Bickel et al present a case report of pleuropulmonary blastoma (PBB) originating from an extralobar sequestration in an infant, and also review current literature regarding PPBs and the controversy around resection of cystic lung lesions in infants and children. Sarcoidosis, although often originating in the lungs, is a systemic disease that involves multiple organs, including the liver. Tetikkurt et al presents a retrospective study evaluating the clinical features and prognostic significance of liver sarcoidosis, which is associated with a worse prognosis than sarcoidosis without liver involvement. Finally, cystic fibrosis is one of the most challenging respiratory conditions facing clinicians and patients. In an expert review of a satellite symposium, Heijerman et al discuss the importance of determining the functional class of transmembrane conductance regulator mutation as well as reviewing new treatment options including ivacaftor and ataluren, both of which tackle the cause of disease and have the potential to improve quality in life. European Respiratory & Pulmonary Diseases would like to thank all expert authors who contributed towards this edition. In addition, a special thanks goes to our Editorial Board for their continuing support and guidance. We hope that you will find plenty of interest among these topical and thought-provoking articles. ■ © TO U CH MED ICA L MEDIA 11