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Foreword Foreword Harly Greenberg Harly Greenberg is Chief of the Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine at Northwell Health and Medical Director of the Northwell Health Sleep Disorders Center. His clinical expertise includes disorders affecting breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring, narcolepsy, parasomnias or abnormal movements and behaviors that occur during sleep, insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, and restless legs syndrome, among many other disorders that can affect sleep. As Program Director for the Hofstra-North Shore-LIJ Sleep Medicine Fellowship Program, Dr. Greenberg plays an important role in educating the next generation of sleep medicine physicians. He is also instrumental in educating the professional medical community about the importance of sleep disorders, frequently lecturing on sleep medicine at major regional medical institutions. Dr. Greenberg has helped to advance sleep medicine as an investigator or co-investigator in multiple clinical research trials. He has made important contributions to our understanding of the cardiovascular consequences of OSA. In addition, he was co-investigator in a major international clinical trial that established the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure therapy as an important treatment for patients with milder forms of OSA. His work has also contributed to the development of new therapies for insomnia. With nearly 60 journal articles and book chapters, Dr. Greenberg is an internationally renowned expert in sleep medicine and has been recognized in the annual list of “Best Doctors” in New York magazine for over 10 years. W elcome to the latest edition of US Respiratory & Pulmonary Diseases, which features a diverse range of articles reflecting the wide spectrum of respiratory disease. We begin with a focus on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the third leading cause of death in the US. In an expert interview, Antonello Punturieri discusses the COPD National Action Plan, the first comprehensive framework for action against the disease. Mechanical ventilation was developed in the 1950s as a treatment for respiratory failure due to ventilatory insufficiency, but is associated with numerous complications. Daniel Ouellette describes new recommendations to guide practitioners in this evolving area. Sleep disordered breathing is highly prevalent in the US, and is associated with a number of health problems. In an expert interview, Ricardo Osorio discusses the findings of a recent study indicating that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with markers of increased amyloid burden. In addition, an editorial by Margaret Bublitz and Ghada Bourjeily discusses the association between sleep disordered breathing and adverse pregnancy-related outcomes such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and severe maternal morbidity including pulmonary edema, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, and admissions to the intensive care unit. Although many people think of tuberculosis as a disease of the past, many cases are reported in the US every year, and it is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. In a perspective report, Sonal Shah Parikh et al. describe the strengths and limitations of tuberculosis control in India. Another disease that is under-recognized in the US is diffuse panbronchiolitis, a rare inflammatory lung disease that, while well known in East Asia, is not restricted to these countries. Ram Kumar Mishra presents a literature review with the aim of educating pulmonologists in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Ultrasonography is the standard diagnostic technique for the evaluation of patients with pleural diseases. Macarena Vial and Horiana Grosu provide guidance for performing ultrasonography, particularly in the evaluation of pleural effusion and pleural thickening. Also on the subject of diagnostic techniques, Sean Callahan et al. present a study comparing the thin convex probe endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscope to standard endobronchial ultrasound and flexible bronchoscope, which is currently the gold standard for staging of lung cancer. The thin convex probe bronchoscope offers the potential of real-time biopsy capability in areas of the lung that currently cannot be reached by standard probes. Finally, we present a case of lung sequestration in an octogenarian male, a rare condition in the elderly, but one that should be considered in a patient presenting with stable lung lesions. The editors of US Respiratory & Pulmonary Diseases would like to thank all expert authors who contributed towards this edition. Special thanks go to our Editorial Board for their continuing support and guidance. We are also grateful to all organizations and media partners for their ongoing support. We hope that you find these articles useful and thought provoking. TOU CH MED ICA L MEDIA 13